흥신소 The interrogation of a suspected criminal can be a complicated affair. Investigators must use psychological techniques to make the suspect uneasy without crossing the line into torture and eliciting a false confession.
Interrogation experts are typically recruited through a rigorous personnel selection procedure and trained using empirical knowledge, research findings and police work experience. These interrogation experts also have to overcome the influence of natural cognitive biases and heuristic judgments.
A confession is the most powerful evidence that law enforcement can use to obtain a conviction. For this reason, many interrogation techniques are designed to get a suspect to confess, even if they are innocent. Unfortunately, some of these interrogation techniques have also been found to lead to false confessions.
In an effort to limit the number of false confessions, mandatory videotaping of all interrogations from start to finish has been promoted. However, this may not fully prevent the occurrence of rogue interrogators using questionable tactics to obtain confessions from suspected criminals. In fact, confirmed false confessions have occurred when interrogators were using standard, court-approved methods.
During interrogations, police officers must possess a variety of skills to be successful. These include natural, explicit, and implicit competencies. The natural capabilities are those innate to the individual; they are the characteristics that contribute to success during interrogation, such as fluid intelligence and processing speed. Explicit competencies are those that the individual learns from formal training or experience. These include the ability to observe and analyze a subject’s truthful and deceptive behavior, as well as the knowledge of how to break the suspect’s negative response emotional states (e.g., anger and fear).
Finally, implicit competencies are those that the individual acquires through natural experiences. For example, an interrogator should be able to recognize and understand the effect that different situations have on the suspect’s behavior and emotions흥신소 . This includes the effects of a suspect’s social environment, such as their daily routine and long periods of inactivity, on the quality of their situational awareness during an interrogation.
Obtaining a Confession
There are several ways that an investigator can obtain a confession during an interrogation. For example, he or she could minimize the seriousness of the crime by telling the suspect that things will be better for them if they confess. They could also try to emotionally and verbally intimidate the suspect by threatening their family or friends or keeping them in the interrogation room for hours or even all night to wear them down until they admit to the crime.
A sacrificial confessor might also step forward to take the blame in order to protect someone they love, which is considered a voluntary confession. Nevertheless, the investigator should be aware that this type of confession can be exposed by asking questions about where the confessor held back details from others.
Another way that an investigator can obtain a confession is by using the Reid technique. According to the Reid website, this method involves nine steps: 1. The positive confrontation. The investigator tells the suspect that the evidence demonstrates guilt. 2. The theme development. The investigator tries to find a moral justification for the suspect’s behavior, such as placing the blame on outside circumstances or other people.
There have been some criticisms of the Reid Technique, but the company maintains that its interrogation methods are not illegal or unethical. It also recommends that an investigator repeat the suspect’s Miranda warnings and avoid leading questions.
Obtaining an Alibi
An alibi is a contention that the accused was at a different location when the crime they were charged with occurred and that this casts reasonable doubt on their involvement. This type of defense is best supported by a credible witness who can testify on your behalf and documentary evidence such as airline tickets, hotel receipts or security footage. Swipe card records, telephone and GPS data can also support an alibi.
Providing an alibi during an interrogation requires an investigator to carefully and objectively evaluate the suspect’s ability to understand the evidence presented and provide a credible explanation of it for them to consider. This is often a difficult task for a suspect especially when faced with overwhelming incriminating evidence.
It is important to avoid overtly threatening or intimidating the suspect during this process. The manner in which you conduct the interrogation and how much evidence you share with the suspect can impact their ability to understand the facts of the case. This is why it’s important to make sure that the interview room is comfortable and balanced for face to face communication and that you don’t have more than one investigator in the same room with a suspect as this can be viewed as oppressive.
Defendants are required to notify the prosecution of their intention to use an alibi defense in advance and must also disclose any witnesses that will be called to rebut it. Having a solid alibi defense in place may result in charges against you being dropped, which can save your reputation and possibly allow you to resume your career or obtain internships.
Obtaining an Explanation
During an interrogation, the interrogator will try to obtain an explanation from the suspect as to the reason for his or her actions. This portion of an interrogation is often difficult and time consuming for the police, but it is important to elicit as much information as possible to complete the investigation.
A good interrogator uses psychological techniques to keep the suspect uneasy without crossing over into torture or causing the suspect to make false confessions. One popular method used in North America is the Reid Technique, a nine step process which focuses on using psychological manipulation. This includes establishing rapport with the suspect, confronting him or her with evidence of guilt, and offering moral justifications for the crime committed.
While the use of some interrogation tactics are considered legal, there are many that are not. For example, physical harm is illegal in most jurisdictions, as are the use of drugs or the threat of them. Likewise, denying the suspect his or her right to an attorney or failing to read Miranda rights before questioning is also illegal.
In order to become an interrogator, a person will need to obtain an entry-level position with a law enforcement or intelligence agency. The type of entry-level position needed depends on the career path a person chooses, but it is likely that he or she will need some level of education in addition to experience.